العملية رمح نپتون

عودة للموسوعة

العملية رمح نپتون

العملية رمح نپتون
Operation Neptune Spear
جزء من الحرب على الإرهاب
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خريطة پاكستان مشروح عليها أبت أباد (الأخضر)، حيث اغتال أسامة بن لاد، عاصمة إسلام أباد (أحمر). أبوت أباد تقع على بعد 32 ميل شمال إسلام أباد.
نطاق العملية تكتيكية
المسقط
مخبأ أسامة بن لادن، بلدة بلال، أبوت أباد، پاكستان

التخطيط
  • قيادة العمليات الخاصة المشهجرة
  • وكالة المخابرات المركزية
التاريخ 2 مايو 2011 (2011-05-02)
01:00 توقيت پاكستان (UTC+5)
التطبيق United States Naval Special Warfare Development Group
النتائج أسامة بن لادن، وأحد أبناءه، المرشد، أحد أقاربه، مقتل رجل/إمراة. تدمير مروحية أمريكية.
الخسائر 5 قتيل
2 جريح

العملية رمح نپتون، هوالاسم الكودي لعملية مقتل أسامة بن لادن في أبوت أباد، پاكستان، 2 مايو2011.

الغرض

أعربت اسوشيتد پرس نقلا عن مسئولين أمريكيين حتى العملية كانت "مهمة اغتال أواحتجاز، حيث حتى الولايات المتحدة لا يمكنها اغتال أشخاص عزل يحاولون الاستسلام"، لكن أيضا "فإن من الواضع من البداية أنه أي من كان وراء تلك الجدران ليس لديهم نية الاستسلام". أعرب جون أوبرنان مستشار مكافحة الإرهاب في البيت الأبيض بعد الغارة: "لوكان لدينا فرصة للقبض على بن لادن حيا، واذا لم يكن يشكل أي تهديد، لكنا عملنا ذلك". أعرب مدير وكالة المخابرات المركزية ليون پانـِتـّا علىپي بي إس نيوزأور: "The authority here was to kill bin Laden...Obviously under the rules of engagement, if he in fact had thrown up his hands, surrendered and didn't appear to be representing any kind of threat, then they were to capture him. But, they had full authority to kill him." A senior U.S. official told ABC News that bin Laden was unarmed and resisted capture, and that "his wife rushed a Navy SEAL, and there was no way the SEALs could have known in that split second whether bin Laden or the room was booby-trapped in any way".

However, a U.S. national security official, who was not named, told Reuters that "'this was a kill operation', making clear there was no desire to try to capture bin Laden alive in Pakistan". Another source referencing a kill (rather than capture order) states, "Officials described the reaction of the special operators when they were told a number of weeks ago that they had been chosen to train for the mission. 'They were told, "We think we found Osama bin Laden, and your job is to kill him",' an official recalled. The SEALs started to cheer."


التخطيط

After an intelligence-gathering effort on the courier's Pakistan compound that began September 2010, President Obama met with his national security advisers on March 14 to create an action plan. They met four more times (March 29, April 12, April 19 and April 28) in the six weeks before the raid. On March 29, Obama personally discussed the plan with Vice Admiral William H. McRaven, the commander of the U.S. Joint Special Operations Command. "Many multiple possible courses of action" were presented to Obama in March and "refined over the course of the next several weeks".

The first approach considered by U.S. officials was to bomb the house using B-2 Spirit stealth bombers, which could drop 32 2,000-pound Joint Direct Attack Munitions. Obama rejected this option, opting for a raid that would provide definitive proof that bin Laden was inside, and limit civilian casualties. Another one of the "courses of action" (COA) suggested by JSOC was "a joint raid with Pakistani intelligence operatives who would be told about the mission hours before the launch". Deploying drones was apparently not a feasible approach, in part because of limited firepower and in part because the compound's location was "within the Pakistan air defense intercept zone for the national capital".

The commando-led COA had multiple risks, including the fact that the extensive preparation and training necessary to pull it off "provided greater chances for information to leak out over the ensuing months, scuttling the mission and sending bin Laden deeper into hiding".

Members of the Naval Special Warfare Development Group began training for the raid (the objective of which remained unknown to them) after the March 22 national security meeting, "holding dry runs at training facilities on both American coasts, which were made up to resemble the compound". As plans progressed during April, the DEVGRU SEALs began more specific training exercises on a one-acre replica of the Waziristan Haveli that was built inside Camp Alpha, a restricted section of the Bagram military base in Afghanistan. According to The Daily Telegraph, 24 Navy SEALs carried out practice runs on Aprilسبعة and April 13.

On April 29, at 8:20 am, Obama convened with Brennan, Thomas E. Donilon, and other national security advisers in the Diplomatic Reception Room and gave the final order to raid the Abbottabad compound.

The raid planned for that day was postponed until the following day due to cloudy weather.

تطبيق العملية

الاقتراب والدخول

Diagram of Osama bin Laden's hideout, showing the high concrete walls that surround the compound

After President Obama authorized the mission to kill or capture bin Laden, CIA Director Leon Panetta gave the go-ahead at midday on May 1.

The raid was carried out by 24 helicopter-borne United States Navy SEALs from the United States Naval Special Warfare Development Group (DEVGRU) of the Joint Special Operations Command, temporarily transferred to the control of the Central Intelligence Agency. The DEVGRU SEALs operated in two teams of 12 each. According to The New York Times, a total of "79 commandos and a dog" were involved in the raid. The dog was a Belgian Malinois named Cairo that may have had bomb detection training. Additional personnel on the mission included helicopter pilots, "tactical signals, intelligence collectors, and navigators using highly classified hyperspectral imagers".

The SEALs flew into Pakistan from a staging base in Jalalabad, Afghanistan after originating at Bagram Air Base. (Previous reports indicated that they may have staged through Tarbela Ghazi Airbase in northwest Pakistan, but Pakistan denied that the U.S. used a location in Pakistan to launch the raid.) The operators were armed with M4 assault rifles, night-vision goggles and handguns.

The 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (SOAR), an airborne unit of the United States Army Special Operations Command known as the Night Stalkers, provided two modified Black Hawk helicopters, and two Chinooks as backups. The Black Hawks may have been never-before-publicly-seen "stealth" versions of the helicopter that allowed it to fly more quietly while being harder to detect on radar. The 160th SOAR helicopters were supported by multiple other aircraft, including fixed-wing fighter jets and drones. According to CNN, "the Air Force also had a full team of combat search-and-rescue helicopters available".

The raid was scheduled for a time with little moon light so the helicopters could enter Pakistan "low to the ground and undetected", and the helicopters used hilly terrain and nap-of-the-earth techniques to reach the compound without appearing on radar and alerting the Pakistani military. Once the raid began, the Pakistani military scrambled their fighter jets but did not interfere with the raid.

The DEVGRU operators originally planned to fast-rope out of the Blackhawks into the compound. As they hovered above the target, however, one of the helicopters suffered a hazard known as a vortex ring state caused by higher than expected air temperature ("a so-called 'hot and high' environment") and the high compound walls, "which blocked rotor downwash from diffusing" causing it to "graze one of the compound's walls" "breaking a rotor". The helicopter "rolled onto its side". None of the operators on the helicopter were seriously injured. The operators from both helicopters then assembled and resumed their assault.

At approximately 1 a.m. local time (20:00, May 1 UTC), the SEALs breached the compound's walls using explosives.


القتال

Encounters between the SEALs and the residents took place in the guest house, in the main building on the first floor where two adult males lived, and on the second and third floors where bin Laden lived with his family. The second and third floors were the last section of the compound to be cleared. In addition to Osama bin Laden, three other men and a woman were killed in the operation. The individuals were said to be bin Laden's adult son (likely Hamza; some sources call him Khalid), the courier known as Abu Ahmed al-Kuwaiti, the courier's relative and the courier's wife. However, Pakistani sources told The New York Times that the dead were all male. An unnamed U.S. senior defense official told the Associated Press only one of the five people killed was armed.[] The only "firefight" took place between the first team of DEVGRU SEALs and al-Kuwaiti, who lived in the guest house. A female, identified by some as the courier's wife, was killed during this exchange. The courier's relative and bin Laden's son were both killed in the main house by the second team of DEVGRU SEALs, the relative on the first floor, and the son on the staircase. Two other women were injured. According to ABC News, bin Laden's fifth wife, Amal Ahmed Abdul Fatah, was one of the injured women; "When the SEALs entered the room in which bin Laden was hiding, his wife charged them and was shot in the leg." Bin Laden's 12-year-old daughter was injured by flying debris, and also saw him killed. The SEALs encountered several women and children during the raid. They restrained them with plastic handcuffs or zip ties and left them in place until the raid was over, at which point they were moved outside[] "for Pakistani forces to discover".

The exact number and identity of the people living in the compound is uncertain. Several appear to be members of the Osama bin Laden family, including as many as three of his wives (including the fifth and youngest) and at least three children. A Pakistani official told The New York Times that nine children ranging from two to 12 years old were placed in Pakistani custody; seven of those children may have belonged to the courier and his relative. According to the British Daily Mail, "four children and two women, including bin Laden's daughter Safia, were taken away in an ambulance". One other person was reportedly taken away alive by the U.S. military; CIA and White House officials denied that anyone was taken alive at any time during the raid. While bin Laden's body was taken by U.S. forces, the bodies of the four others killed in the raid were left behind at the compound; those bodies were later taken into Pakistani custody.

Bin Laden and the DEVGRU team encountered each other on the second or third floor of the residence; bin Laden was "wearing the local loose-fitting tunic and pants known as a shalwar kameez". Bin Laden reportedly peered over the third floor ledge at the Americans advancing up the stairs, then retreated into his room as a SEAL fired a shot at him but missed. The attackers quickly followed him into his room and shot him. He was later found to have €500 and two phone numbers stitched into his clothes. Although there were weapons in the room, including an AK-47 and Makarov pistol, an unarmed bin Laden resisted capture before being shot. "The encounter with bin Laden lasted only seconds," according to Politico, and took place during "the last five orعشرة minutes" of the raid. Bin Laden was killed by at least one and possibly two American bullets, one of which struck the left side of his head, another shot was widely reported to be a bullet to the chest.

الانتهاء

The raid was intended to take 30 minutes. All told, the time between the team's entry in and exit from the compound was 38 minutes. Time in the compound was spent neutralizing defenders; "moving carefully through the compound, room to room, floor to floor" securing the women and children; clearing "weapons stashes and barricades", including a false door, three AK-47s, and two pistols; and searching the compound for information. U.S. personnel recovered computer hard drives, documents, DVDs, thumb drives, and "electronic equipment" from the compound for later analysis.

The helicopter that had made the emergency landing was damaged, and unable to fly the team out. It was consequently destroyed to safeguard its classified equipment, including an apparent stealth capability. After they "moved the women and children to a secure area", U.S. forces "improvise[d] by packing the helicopter with explosives and blowing it up". The assault team "called in one of two backup [helicopters]" to transport them to a base in Afghanistan and/or the aircraft carrier in the North Arabian Sea.


الاتصال الأمريكي-الپاكستاني

The U.S. national security team gathered in the Situation Room to monitor the progress of Operation Neptune Spear. See also: The Situation Room (photograph)

According to Obama administration officials, U.S. officials did not share information about the raid with the government of Pakistan until it was over.Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Michael Mullen called Pakistan's army chief Ashfaq Parvez Kayani at about ثلاثة a.m. local time to inform him of the Abbottbad Operation.

According to the Pakistani foreign ministry, the operation was conducted entirely by the U.S. forces. Pakistan Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) officials claimed that they were also present at what they called a joint operation, President Asif Ali Zardari flatly denied this assertion.

According to ABC News, Pakistani fighter jets were scrambled in an attempt to locate and identify what turned out to be the U.S. helicopters used in the raid.Pakistan's foreign secretary Salman Bashir later confirmed that Pakistani military had scrambled F-16s after they became aware of the attack but that they reached the compound after American helicopters had left.

التفسيرات المحلية

Observations from a distance were tweeted by an Abbottabad resident, including complaints about the noise of low-flying helicopters, a "rare" event.Karachi's Geo News described a helicopter crash and "heavy firing" on the evening of May 1 "near the PMA Kakul Road". Another resident of the area said, "We saw four helicopters at around 2 a.m. We were told to switch off lights of our homes and stay inside." Local residents in the vicinity of the compound reported that cellular telephone and electrical service in the area went out around the time the raid began and was restored immediately after the Americans departed the area; the Pakistani Military Academy suffered a blackout during this time as well.

ISI reported after questioning survivors of the raid that there were 17 to 18 people in the compound at the time of the attack and that the Americans took away one person still alive, possibly a bin Laden son. The ISI also said that survivors included a wife, a daughter and eight to nine other children, not apparently bin Laden's. An unnamed Pakistani security official as reporting that one of bin Laden's daughters told Pakistani investigators that bin Laden had been shot dead in front of family members. The daughter also claimed that bin Laden was captured alive then executed by American forces and dragged to a helicopter.

الاسم الكودي

Initial press reports claimed that "Geronimo" was used in the raid to refer to bin Laden himself, but this was later contradicted by official sources. The official mission code name was Operation Neptune Spear, with Jackpot as the code name for bin Laden as an individual and Geronimo as the code word for bin Laden's capture or death. Neptune's spear is the trident, which appears on Navy Special Warfare insignia, with the three prongs of the trident representing the operational capacity of SEALs on sea, air and land.

Geronimo was the Native American leader of the Chiricahua Apache who defied the U.S. government and eluded capture, raiding frontier settlements and killing settlers from the United States and Mexico. A transmission from operatives on the ground in Pakistan of Geronimo E KIA (Geronimo, enemy killed in action) alerted mission commanders to the death of bin Laden. Some Native Americans objected to the use of the name Geronimo in this context, because it perpetuated the stereotype of American Indians as enemies. The leaders of several Native American Indian nations urged President Obama to retroactively rename the code name, and the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs added it to a hearing agenda.

المجمع السكني

كان يوجد حوالي 19 إنسان في المجمع السكني وقت وقوع الغارة:

  • قتلخمسة أشخاص
    • أبوأحمد الكويتي (حليف أرشد خان)، الدليل، اغتال أثناء إطلاق النار.
    • رجل أوإمرأة بالغة، غير معروف، أعزل، استخدم كدرع بشري أثناء تبادل إطلاق النار.
    • رجل بالغ (خليف طارق خان)، شقيق أوابن عم الدليل، غير مسلح.
    • حمزة بان لادن أوخالد بن لادن، نجل أسامة بن لادن، غير مسلح.
    • أسامة بن لادن، غير مسلح.
  • جرح شخصان.
  • أمل أحمد عبد الفتاح، زوجة بن لادن، غير مسلحة.
    • إبنة بن لادن صفية، 12 عام
  • يتحمل أسر إنسان من قبل القوات الأمريكية
    • رجل بالغ
  • 11 إنسان غير مسلحون هجروا أحياء
    • 9 أشخاص ما بين 2 و12 عام
      • الكويتي (حليف أرشد خان)، يحتمل أنه كان لديه طفلان ما بين ثلاثة و4 أعوام.
      • الكويتي، يحتمل أنه كان لديه أربعة أطفال، قريبه (حليف طارق خان) يمكن أنه كان لديه أربعة أطفال
    • إمرأتان من عائلة بن لادن، يمكن حتىقد يكونوا زوجاته.


انظر أيضا

  • مقتل أسامة بن لادن

المصادر

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تاريخ النشر: 2020-06-04 09:52:54
التصنيفات: صفحات بها أخطاء في البرنامج النصي, صفحات بأخطاء في المراجع, صفحات تستعمل قالبا ببيانات مكررة, Pages with citations using unnamed parameters, Pages with citations lacking titles, Pages with citations having bare URLs, Pages with citations using unsupported parameters, All articles with unsourced statements, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2011, Articles with invalid date parameter in template, عمليات عسكرية أمريكية, 2011 في باكستان, مقاطعة أبوت أباد, عمليات وكالة الاستخبارات المركزية, عمليات القوات الخاصة الأمريكية, أسامة بن لادن, الحرب على الإرهاب, 2011 في التاريخ العسكري

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