جوسف كونراد

عودة للموسوعة

جوسف كونراد

جوسف كونراد

جوزيف كونرادJoseph Conrad (و. ثلاثة ديسمبر 1857 - ت. ثلاثة اغسطس 1924)، هوأديب إنگليزي-روسي الأصل ولد في ما يعهد بأوكرانيا البولندية 1857م لوالد اديب مغمور انتقل مع والده إلىبولندا حيث توفى والده. ومنها انتقل إلى فرنساعام 1874م حيث عمل بالملاحة ثم انتقل إلى إنگلترة واستمر في عمله بالبحر. خط عدة روايات اغلبها لها علاقة بالبحر ويرويها بحار عجوز من رواياته "قلب الظلام" "العميل السري" و"النصر" و"تحت عين غريبة ".

السيرة

نوڤي سڤيات 47، وارسو، حيث عاش كونراد ابن الثلاثة أعوام مع والديه في 1861

تعتبر «قلب الظلمات» الى جانب روايته الأخرى «لورد جيم» اشهر وأجمل ما خط جوزف كونراد (1857-1924) المحرر الإنكليزي ذوالأصل البولندي، اذ انه عبر فيها عن قوة رسمه، من ناحية، للطبيعة ولعلاقة الإنسان بها، ومن ناحية ثانية، للإنسان في عواطفه ومشاعره الخفية. ففي «قلب الظلمات» عهد كونراد كيف من الممكن أن يرسم الطبيعة كشبكة من المشاعر التي تحيط بنا وتسيّر حركاتنا، وهي متمتعة بحياة خاصة بها، من الصعب ان نجد في داخلنا قوة حقيقية للسيطرة عليها. وما كورتس هنا سوى مرشد على سيطرة الطبيعة على الإنسان. وكونراد كان يعهد هذه العلاقة بين الإنسان والطبيعة، هوالذي عايش الأدغال والبحار منذ سن مبكرة. فهواذ تيتم بعد ولادته في أوكرانيا، وكان في العاشرة من عمره، عثر نفسه بسرعة على متن سفن تجارية بحاراً بين بحارتها. ومن ثم أتيح له ان يصبح بحاراً على سفن تجارية انكليزية، ما مكّنه في العام 1886 من الحصول على الجنسية البريطانية. وهوظل يخوض غمار البحار حتى العام 1894، حيث تقاعد منصرفاً الى الكتابة، فأنجز حتى رحيله العام 1924، ثلاثين كتاباً وصف في معظمها مغامراته في البلدان والبحار والقارات اواستوحاها بأسلوب غرائبي كان هوما ساهم في تحقيق رواياته نجاحاً ما بعده نجاح. ومن أبرز اعماله، الى ما ذكرنا، «الإعصار» و»في آخر اللفافة» وغيرها من اعمال كان هدف كونراد الدائم فيها البحث عن حقيقة الإنسان وعلاقته بالكون، ولكن في نطقب روائي مشوّق دائماً.


الرحلات

كونراد، 1904

التطور العاطفي

Roi des Belges—the ship that Conrad sailed up the Congo River

الحياة المتأخرة والوفاة

Villa Konstantynówka in Zakopane, where Conrad stayed in 1914
Conrad's coat-of-arms

الأسلوب

T.E. Lawrence, by Augustus John

العنصرية

ذكراه

مذكرات

Anchor-shaped Conrad monument at Gdynia, on Poland's Baltic Seacoast

روايات

قلب الظلام

Sir Jacob Epstein's bust of Conrad (1924) in Birmingham Art Gallery. A copy is in San Francisco's Maritime Museum.
  • Almayer's Folly (1895)
  • An Outcast of the Islands (1896)
  • The Nigger of the 'Narcissus' (1897)
  • Heart of Darkness (1899)
  • Lord Jim (1900)
  • The Inheritors (with Ford Madox Ford) (1901)
  • Typhoon (1902, begun 1899)
  • Romance (with Ford Madox Ford, 1903)
  • Nostromo (1904)
  • The Secret Agent (1907)
  • Under Western Eyes (1911)
  • Chance (1913)
  • Victory (1915)
  • The Shadow Line (1917)
  • The Arrow of Gold (1919)
  • The Rescue (1920)
  • The Nature of a Crime (1923, with Ford Madox Ford)
  • The Rover (1923)
  • Suspense: a Napoleonic Novel (1925; unfinished, published posthumously)

روايات وقصص قصيرة

  • "The Idiots" (Conrad's first short story; written during his honeymoon, published in Savo 1896 and collected in Tales of Unrest, 1898).
  • "The Black Mate" (written, according to Conrad, in 1886; published 1908; posthumously collected in Tales of Hearsay, 1925).
  • "The Lagoon" (composed 1896; published in Cornhill Magazine 1897; collected in Tales of Unrest, 1898).
  • "An Outpost of Progress" (written 1896 and named in 1906 by Conrad himself, long after the publication of Lord Jim and Heart of Darkness, as his 'best story'; published in Cosmopolis 1897 and collected in Tales of Unrest 1898; often compared to Heart of Darkness, with which it has numerous thematic affinities).
  • "The Return" (written circa early 1897; never published in magazine form; collected in Tales of Unrest, 1898; Conrad, presaging the sentiments of most readers, once remarked, "I hate it").
  • "Karain: A Memory" (written February–April 1897; published November 1897 in Blackwood's and collected in Tales of Unrest, 1898).
  • "Youth" (written in 1898; collected in Youth, a Narrative and Two Other Stories, 1902)
  • "Falk" (novella/story, written in early 1901; collected only in Typhoon and Other Stories, 1903).
  • "Amy Foster" (composed in 1901; published in the Illustrated London News, December 1901, and collected in Typhoon and Other Stories, 1903).
  • "To-morrow" (written early 1902; serialized in Pall Mall Magazine, 1902 and collected in Typhoon and Other Stories, 1903).
  • "The End of the Tether" (written in 1902; collected in Youth, a Narrative and Two Other Stories, 1902)
  • "Gaspar Ruiz" (written after "Nostromo" in 1904–05; published in Strand Magazine in 1906 and collected in A Set of Six, 1908 UK/1915 US. This story was the only piece of Conrad's fiction ever adapted by the author for cinema, as Gaspar the Strong Man, 1920).
  • "An Anarchist" (written in late 1905; serialized in Harper's in 1906; collected in A Set of Six, 1908 UK/1915 US.)
  • "The Informer" (written before January 1906; published in December 1906 in Harper's and collected in A Set of Six, 1908 UK/1915 US.)
  • "The Brute" (written in early 1906; published in The Daily Chronicle in December 1906; collected in A Set of Six, 1908 UK/1915 US.)
  • "The Duel" (aka "The Point of Honor": serialized in the UK in Pall Mall Magazine in early 1908 and in the US periodical Forum later that year; collected in A Set of Six in 1908 and published by Garden City Publishing in 1924. Joseph Fouché makes a cameo appearance)
  • "Il Conde" (i.e., 'Conte' [count]: appeared in Cassell's Magazine [UK] 1908 and Hampton's [US] in 1909; collected in A Set of Six, 1908 UK/1915 US.)
  • "The Secret Sharer" (written December 1909; published in Harper's in 1910 and collected in ’Twixt Land and Sea 1912)
  • "Prince Roman" (written 1910, published in 1911 in the Oxford and Cambridge Review; based upon the story of Prince Roman Sanguszko of Poland 1800–1881)
  • "A Smile of Fortune" (a long story, almost a novella, written in mid-1910; published in London Magazine in February 1911; collected in ’Twixt Land and Sea 1912)
  • "Freya of the Seven Isles" (another near-novella, written late 1910–early 1911; published in Metropolitan Magazine and London Magazine in early 1912 and July 1912, respectively; collected in ’Twixt Land and Sea 1912)
  • "The Partner" (written in 1911; published in Within the Tides, 1915)
  • "The Inn of the Two Witches" (written in 1913; published in Within the Tides, 1915)
  • "Because of the Dollars" (written in 1914; published in Within the Tides, 1915)
  • "The Planter of Malata" (written in 1914; published in Within the Tides, 1915)
  • "The Warrior's Soul" (written late 1915–early 1916; published in Land and Water, in March 1917; collected in Tales of Hearsay, 1925)
  • "The Tale" (Conrad's only story about الحرب العالمية الأولى; written 1916 and first published 1917 in Strand Magazine)


مذكرات ومنطقات

  • The Mirror of the Sea (collection of autobiographical essays first published in various magazines 1904–6 ), 1906
  • A Personal Record (also published as Some Reminiscences), 1912
  • Notes on Life and Letters, 1921
  • Last Essays, 1926

أفلام

A number of films have been based on, or inspired by, Conrad's writings, including:

  • Victory (1919), directed by Maurice Tourneur
  • Lord Jim (1925), directed by Victor Fleming
  • Niebezpieczny raj (Dangerous Paradise, 1930), a Polish adaptation of Victory
  • Dangerous Paradise (1930), an adaptation of Victory directed by William Wellman
  • Sabotage (1936), adapted from Conrad's The Secret Agent, directed by Alfred Hitchcock
  • Victory (1940), featuring Frederick March
  • An Outcast of the Islands (1952), featuring Trevor Howard
  • Lord Jim (1965), starring Peter O'Toole
  • The Duellists, a 1977 adaptation of The Duel by Ridley Scott
  • Apocalypse Now (1979), by Francis Ford Coppola, adapted from Heart of Darkness
  • Victory (1995), adapted from the novel by director Mark Peploe.
  • The Secret Agent (1996), starring Bob Hoskins, Patricia Arquette and Gérard Depardieu.
  • Nostromo (1997), a BBC TV adaptation, co-produced with Italian and Spanish TV networks and WGBH Boston.

انظر أيضا

ORP Conrad—الحرب العالمية الثانية Polish Navy cruiser
  • قائمة أعمال جوزيف كونراد
  • Bolesław Prus
  • ORP Conrad – a الحرب العالمية الثانية Polish Navy cruiser named after Joseph Conrad.
  • King Leopold's Ghost
  • السياسة في الخيال
  • List of Poles
  • قائمة أشخاص على غلاف مجلة التايم: عقد 1920 -سبعة ابريل 1923
  • Alice Sarah Kinkead

الهوامش

المصادر

  • The authorized biography is Gérard Jean-Aubry's Vie de Conrad, Gallimard, 1947, translated by Helen Sebba as The Sea Dreamer: A Definitive Biography of Joseph Conrad, Doubleday & Co.,1957.Magill, Frank (1968). . 11. Salem Press. p. 236. |first2= missing |last2= (help)
  • Tim Butcher: Blood River - A Journey To Africa's Broken Heart, 2007. ISBN 0-701-17981-3.
  • Jeffrey Meyers, Joseph Conrad: a Biography, New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1991.
  • Zdzisław Najder, Conrad under Familial Eyes, Cambridge University Press, 1984, ISBN 0-521-25082-X.
  • Zdzisław Najder, Joseph Conrad: a Life, translated by Halina Najder, Rochester, Camden House, 2007, ISBN 157113347X.
  • J.H. Stape, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Joseph Conrad, Cambridge University Press, 2006.
  • John Stape. The Several Lives of Joseph Conrad, Pantheon, 2008, ISBN 1400044499.
  • T. Scovel, A Time to Speak: a Psycholinguistic Inquiry into the Critical Period for Human Speech, Cambridge, MA, Newbury House, 1988.
  • Morton Dauwen Zabel, "Conrad, Joseph," Encyclopedia Americana, 1986 ed., ISBN 0-7172-0117-1, vol. 7, pp. 606–7.

وصلات خارجية

اقرأ اقتباسات ذات علاقة بجوسف كونراد، في فهم الاقتباس.
Wikisource has original works written by or about:
جوسف كونراد

Sources

  • Works by or about Joseph Conrad at Internet Archive and Google Books (scanned books original editions color illustrated)
  • أعمال من Joseph Conrad في مشروع گوتنبرگ (plain text and HTML)
  • Works by Joseph Conrad at The Online Books Page (various)
  • Works by Joseph Conrad at LibriVox (audio books)
  • Works by Joseph Conrad at Books In My Phone (cell phone)
  • Works by Joseph Conrad at Conrad First, an archive of every newspaper and magazine in which the work of Joseph Conrad was first published.

بوابات وبيوگرافيا

  • The Joseph Conrad Society (U.K)
  • Biography of Joseph Conrad, at The Joseph Conrad Centre of Poland
  • Biography of Joseph Conrad, at The Literature Network

نقد أدبي

  • Conrad's page at Literary Journal.com, a number of research articles on Conrad's work
  • Chinua Achebe: The Lecture Heard Around The World

متنوعات

  • Find-A-Grave profile for Joseph Conrad
  • Archival material relating to جوسف كونراد listed at the UK National Register of Archives
تاريخ النشر: 2020-06-04 20:43:44
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