سرمت

سرمت Sarmatians

الامتداد التقريبي لـ اللغات الإيرانية الشرقية في القرن الأول ق.م. يظهر باللون البرتنطقي.
المناطق ذات التجمعات المعتبرة
Eastern Europe
Central Asia[]
Languages
Scythian languages, East Iranian languages
Related ethnic groups
Scythians, Sakas
Descendants: Alans, Ossetians Clan Ostoja

السرمت (Sarmatians؛ باللاتينية: Sarmatae أوSauromatae, Greek: Σαρμάται, Σαυρομάται) were a large confederation of Iranian people during classical antiquity, flourishing from about the 5th century BC to the 4th century AD. They spoke Scythian, an Indo-European language from the Eastern Iranian family.

Depiction of a Sarmatian from a Roman sarcopagus, 2nd century AD

مواضيع هندو-اوروبية

اللغات الهندو-اوروبية
الألبانية • الأرمنية • البلطيقية
الكلتية • الجرمانية • اليونانية
الهندو-إيرانية (الهندو-آرية, الإيرانية)
الإيطالية • السلاڤية  

منقرضة: الأناضولية • البلقانية القديمة (الداتشية,
الفريجية, التراقية) • الطخارية

الشعوب الهندو-اوروبية
الألبان • الأرمن
البلط • الكلت • الشعوب الجرمانية
اليونان • الهندو-آريون
الإيرانيون • اللاتين • السلاڤ

تاريخياً: الأناضوليون (الحيثيون, لويون)
الكلت (الگالاتيون, الغال) • القبائل الجرمانية
إليريون • الإيطال  • سرماتيون
سكوذيون  • التراقيون  • طخاريون
هندو-إيرانيون (القبائل الريگڤدية, القبائل الإيرانية) 

الهندو-اوروبية الأولية
اللغة • المجتمع • الديانة
 
فرضية الكورگان
الأناضول • أرمنيا • الهند • PCT
 
الدراسات الهندو-اوروبية
جزء من عن
بوابة أوكرانيا

Originating in the central parts of the Eurasian Steppe, the Sarmatians were part of the wider Scythian cultures. They started migrating westward around the 4th and 3rd centuries BC, coming to dominate the closely related Scythians by 200 BC. At their greatest reported extent, around 1st century AD, these tribes ranged from the Vistula River to the mouth of the Danube and eastward to the Volga, bordering the shores of the Black and Caspian seas as well as the Caucasus to the south.

Their territory, which was known as Sarmatia ( //) to Greco-Roman ethnographers, corresponded to the western part of greater Scythia (it included today's Central Ukraine, South-Eastern Ukraine, Southern Russia, Russian Volga and South-Ural regions, also to a smaller extent north-eastern Balkans and around Moldova). In the 1st century AD, the Sarmatians began encroaching upon the Roman Empire in alliance with Germanic tribes. In the 3rd century AD, their dominance of the Pontic Steppe was broken by the Germanic Goths. With the Hunnic invasions of the 4th century, many Sarmatians joined the Goths and other Germanic tribes (Vandals) in the settlement of the Western Roman Empire. Since large parts of today's Russia, specifically the land between the Ural Mountains and the Don River, were controlled in the 5th century BC by the Sarmatians, the Volga–Don and Ural steppes sometimes are also called "Sarmatian Motherland".

The Sarmatians were eventually decisively assimilated (e.g. Slavicisation) and absorbed by the Proto-Slavic population of Eastern Europe.

أصل الاسم

Map of the Roman empire under Hadrian (ruled 117–138 AD), showing the location of the Sarmatae in the Ukrainian steppe region

Sarmatae probably originated as just one of several tribal names of the Sarmatians, but one that Greco-Roman ethnography came to apply as an exonym to the entire group. Strabo in the 1st century names as the main tribes of the Sarmatians the Iazyges, the Roxolani, the Aorsi and the Siraces.


الأصول

الآثار

Great steppe of Kazakhstan in early spring.
A Sarmatian diadem, found at the Khokhlach kurgan near Novocherkassk (1st century AD, Hermitage Museum).
A Sarmatian-Parthian gold necklace and amulet, 2nd century AD. Located in Tamoikin Art Fund
Sarmatian cataphracts during Dacian Wars as depicted on Trajan's Column.
Sarmatia Europea in map of Scythia, 1697.
Sarmatians on Roman relief, second half of the second century AD.
"Sarmatia Europæa" separated from "Sarmatia Asiatica" by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770.
Sarmatian captives depicted on the reverse of a Roman coin struck c. AD 177 under the Emperor Marcus Aurelius


اللغة

The Sarmatians spoke the Scythian language. The numerous Iranian personal names in the Greek inscriptions from the Black Sea Coast indicate that the Sarmatians spoke a North-Eastern Iranian dialect ancestral to Alanian-Ossetian.

الجينات

In a study conducted in 2014 by Gennady Afanasiev et al. on bone fragments fromعشرة Alanic burials on the Don River, DNA could be extracted from a total of 7. [][]


المظهر

Like the Scythians, Sarmatians were of a Caucasoid appearance. Sarmatian noblemen often reached 1.70–1.80 م (5 قدم 7 بوصة–5 قدم 11 بوصة) as measured from skeletons. They had sturdy bones, long hair and beards.[]

The Alans were a group of Sarmatian tribes, according to the Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He wrote, "Nearly all the Alani are men of great stature and beauty, their hair is somewhat yellow, their eyes are frighteningly fierce".

In the late 2nd or early 3rd century AD, the Greek physician Galen declared that Sarmatians, Scythians and other northern peoples have reddish hair.

فهم الأعراق اليوناني-الروماني

Herodotus (Histories 4.21) in the 5th century BC placed the land of the Sarmatians east of the Tanais, beginning at the corner of the Maeotian Lake, stretching northwards for fifteen days' journey, adjacent to the forested land of the Budinoi.


الانحدار في القرن الرابع

قائمة القبائل السرمتية

  • Alans (sometimes considered separate from the Sarmatians)
  • Antes (ethnogenetically mixed Slavic speaking people, see Early Slavs)
  • Aorsi
  • Arcaragantes and Limigantes, tribes formed after the Roxolani enslaved the Iazyges
  • Basileans[]
  • Iazyges
  • Roxolani
  • Saii
  • Serboi
  • Siraces
  • Spali
  • Taifals
  • Tyrigetae


انظر أيضاً

  • السرمتية
  • سكوذيون
  • Ancient Iranian peoples
    • History of Iranian peoples in Europe
  • Jász
  • Sindes
  • Tirgatao
  • Amazons
  • Clan of Ostoja
  • Geto-Dacians

المراجع

الهامش

  1. ^ Sinor 1990, p. 113
  2. ^ "Sarmatian". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 31 December 2014.
  3. ^ Waldman & Mason 2006, pp. 692–694
  4. ^ J.Harmatta: "Scythians" in UNESCO Collection of History of Humanity – Volume III: From the Seventh Century BC to the Seventh Century AD. Routledge/UNESCO. 1996. pg. 182
  5. ^ Unterländer, Martina (March 3, 2017). "Ancestry and demography and descendants of Iron Age nomads of the Eurasian Steppe". Nature Communications. doi:10.1038/ncomms14615. During the first millennium BCE, nomadic people spread over the Eurasian Steppe from the Altai Mountains over the northern Black Sea area as far as the Carpathian Basin... Greek and Persian historians of the 1st millennium BCE chronicle the existence of the Massagetae and Sauromatians, and later, the Sarmatians and Sacae: cultures possessing artefacts similar to those found in classical Scythian monuments, such as weapons, horse harnesses and a distinctive ‘Animal Style' artistic tradition. Accordingly, these groups are often assigned to the Scythian culture...
  6. ^ "Sarmatian | people". Encyclopedia Britannica.
  7. ^ Kozlovskaya, Valeriya (2017). The Northern Black Sea in antiquity : networks, connectivity, and cultural interactions. Kozlovskaya, Valeriya, 1972-. Cambridge, United Kingdom. ISBN . OCLC 1000597862.
  8. ^ Tarasov, Илья Тарасов / Ilia. "Балты в миграциях Великого переселения народов. Галинды // Исторический формат, № 3-4, 2017. С. 95-124". Балты в миграциях Великого переселения народов. Галинды – via www.academia.edu.
  9. ^ Handbuch der Orientalistik, Iranistik. By I. Gershevitch, O. Hansen, B. Spuler, M.J. Dresden, Prof M Boyce, M. Boyce Summary. E.J. Brill. 1968.
  10. ^ [1]
  11. ^ خطأ استشهاد: وسم <ref> غير سليم؛ لا نص تم توفيره للمراجع المسماة scribd
  12. ^ Galen. De temperamentis 2. 5
  13. ^ Day 2001, pp. 55–57
  14. ^ "Nomads of the Steepes". March 2014. Regnal Chronologies. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
  15. ^ Prichard Cowles, James. "Ethnography of Europe. 3d ed. p433.1841". 17 January 2015. Houlston & Stoneman, 1841. Retrieved 17 January 2015.

المصادر

  • Richard Brzezinski and Mariusz Mielczarek, The Sarmatians 600 BC-AD 450 (Men-At-Arms nr. 373), Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2002. ISBN 978-1-84176-485-6.
  • Davis-Kimball, Jeannine. 2002. Warrior Women: An Archaeologist's Search for History's Hidden Heroines. Warner Books, New York. first Trade printing, 2003. ISBN 0-446-67983-6 (pbk).
  • Davis-Kimball, Jeannine, Vladimir A. Bashilov, Leonid T. Yablonsky, Eds. Nomads of the Eurasian Steppes in the Early Iron Age. Berkeley: Zinat Press 1995. ISBN 1-885979-00-2
  • Day, John V. (2001). . Institute for the Study of Man. ISBN . Retrieved March 2, 2015.
  • Bruno Genito, 1988, The Archaeological Cultures of the Sarmatians with a Preliminary Note on the Trial-Trenches at Gyoma 133: a Sarmatian Settlement in South-Eastern Hungary (Campaign 1985), Annali dell'Istituto Universitario Orientale di Napoli, Vol. 42, pp. 81–126. Napoli.
  • Alexander Guagnini (1538–1614), Sarmatiae Europeae descriptio, Spira 1581.
  • Sinor, Denis (1 March 1990). . Cambridge University Press. ISBN . Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  • Tadeusz Sulimirski, The Sarmatians (vol. 73 in series "Ancient People and Places") London: Thames & Hudson/New York: Praeger, 1970.
  • Waldman, Carl; Mason, Catherine (2006). . Infobase Publishing. ISBN . Retrieved January 16, 2015.

وصلات خارجية

  • 1911: "Sarmatae"
  • Studies in the History and Language of the Sarmatians
  • Ptolemaic Map (Digital Scriptorium)
  • Map of Sarmatia 1697
  • Kurgans, Ritual Sites, and Settlements: Eurasian Bronze and Iron Age
  • Nomadic Art of the Eastern Eurasian Steppes, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art (fully available online as PDF), which contains material on Sarmatians
تاريخ النشر: 2020-06-07 08:24:17
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